Damaging potential of oil

GREENPOWERSCIENCE  May 26, 2010 — Dispersants have two main components: a surfactant and a solvent. Surfactants molecules are made up of two parts: an oleophilic part (with an attraction to oil) and a hydrophilic part (with an attraction to water). When dispersants are sprayed onto an oil slick, the solvent will transport and distribute the surfactants through the oil slick to the oil/water interface where they arrange themselves so that the oleophilic part of the molecule is in the oil and the hydrophilic part is in the water. This creates a reduction in the surface tension at the oil/water interface and small oil droplets will break away from the oil slick with the help of wave energy. These droplets will be of varying sizes and although the larger ones may rise back to the surface some will remain in suspension and will drift apart and become degraded by naturally occurring bacteria. If dispersion is successful, a characteristic brown plume will spread slowly down from the water surface a few minutes after treatment. 

Dispersants have little effect on very viscous, floating oils, as they tend to run off the oil into the water before the solvent can penetrate. As a general rule, dispersants are capable of dispersing most liquid oils and emulsions with viscosities of less than 2000 centistokes, equivalent to a medium fuel oil at 10-20ºC. They are unsuitable for dealing with viscous emulsions (mousse) or oils which have a pour point near to or above that of the ambient temperature. Even those oils which can be dispersed initially become resistant after a period of time as the viscosity increases as a result of evaporation and emulsification. For a particular oil, the time available before dispersant stops being effective depends upon such factors as sea state and temperature but is unlikely to be longer than a day or two. Dispersants can, however, be more effective with viscous oils on shorelines because the contact time may be prolonged allowing better penetration of the dispersant into the oil.

• Type 1 dispersants are based on hydrocarbon solvents with between 15% to 25% surfactant. They are sprayed neat onto the oil as pre-dilution with sea water renders them ineffective. Typical dose rates are between 1:1 and 1:3 (dispersant:oil).
• Type 2 dispersants are dilutable concentrate dispersants which are alcohol or glycol (i.e. oxygenated) solvent based with a higher surfactant concentration. Dilution is normally 1:10 with sea water.
• Type 3 dispersants are also concentrate dispersants with a similar formulation to type 2 products. However, they are designed to be used neat and typical dose rates are between 1:5 and 1:30 (neat dispersant:oil).
Type 1 and 2 dispersants require thorough mixing with the oil after application to produce satisfactory dispersion. With type 3 products, the natural movement of the sea is usually sufficient to achieve this. The lower application rates required with concentrates mean that types 2 and 3 have largely superseded type 1 dispersants for application at sea.
- itopf


All the more reason why we should stop the bad change oil habit.

Engineered oils have a long term damaging impact to the environment... for as long as we are kept in the dark, the Big oil corporations will keep getting rich, their reason why they made this engineered destruction is to keep economies running. Of course they know about this green technologies, but if they promote this, in spite of its good benefits to the world, they claim that companies will close and there will be no more jobs generated or sustain.

Nothing can be further than the truth...

Carbon Footprint Calculator

Notes to ponder

NASA claims that the government could slow down worldwide global warming by cutting down on soot emissions. Studies by NASA show that cutting down on soot would not only have an immediate cooling effect, but would also put a stop to many of the deaths caused by air pollution. When soot is formed, it typically travels through the air absorbing and releasing solar radiation which in turn begins to warm the atmosphere. Cutting soot emissions would be an immediate help against global warming, as the soot would quickly fall out of the atmosphere and begin to cool it down.

Cutting back on soot emissions would buy us time in our fight against global warming. Soot is caused by the partial burning of fossil fuels, wood and vegetation. Soot is known to contain over forty different cancer causing chemicals, and a complete cut would offer untold health benefits worldwide.

Environmental conservation has always been a topic for lengthy discussions, but up until recent times, global warming and climate changes were vague subjects, with no hard proof. Not surprisingly, the previous lack of attention to these issues have created a very gloomy outlook on our future. So, considering all this, what could be the biggest contributor to climate changes through global warming? Transportation - the man-made iron horses, flying machines and sea monsters, so to speak.

The question we have now is how green is our transportation? The majority of the worlds' vehicles are fueled by oil (petrol, diesel and kerosene). Even if they rely on electricity, the stations used to generate this electricity use fossil fuels for power! Excluding vehicle manufacture, transportation is responsible for 14% of the artificially created greenhouse emissions, mostly carbondioxide.

Automobiles, trains and planes are all responsible for this problem, but cars are the highest impact-makers. They release approximately six times more carbondioxide than a plane and seven times more than sea vessels.

What is Air Pollution?

Air pollution is somewhat difficult to define because many air pollutants, at low concentrations, are essential nutrients for the sustainable development of ecosystems. So, air pollution could be defined as:A state of the atmosphere, which leads to the exposure of human beings and/or ecosystems to such high levels or loads of specific compounds or mixtures thereof, that damage is caused. With very few exceptions, all compounds that are considered air pollutants have both natural as well as human-made origins.

Air pollution is not a new phenomenon; in Medieval times, the burning of coal was forbidden in London while Parliament was in session. Air pollution problems have dramatically increased in intensity as well as scale due to the increase in emissions since the Industrial Revolution.