LPG... a bigger picture untold

The Philippines has among the largest and fastest growing markets for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in the Asia-Pacific region. The Philippines Government Energy Plan 1999-2008 shows that LPG use in the country has been rising steadily at approximately 37% per year for the past 12 years. The Philippines currently consumes close to one million metric tons of LPG per year on average; in 2003 LPG consumption in the country hit a record-high of 1.150 million metric tons. As LPG consumption expands, implementing regulations and standards to facilitate safety and security becomes more important. Today, however, the Philippines cannot claim an existing law or regulatory framework to safely operate the country’s LPG industry. Apart from random inspections conducted by Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) Bureau of Products Standards (BPS), there are no legal mechanisms to curb the rampant sale and distribution of defective and substandard tanks......

Research and Analysis on the Hazard of LPG Tank Area
ZHANG Yu-ruo WANG Jing-yu(School of Chemical Industry and Environment,North University of China Taiyuan 030051) At present,the research objects of most hazard assessment are single hazard resource and process.But in daily industrial production,secondary and even several times of accidents Can be happened,resulted from the release of energy of the initial accident.With the change of large-size of industrial production and the increase of storage amount,the possibility of the happening of the domino accidents is also increasing.LPG tank area is just this kind area in which the accidents can be easily happened.The possibility of domino accidents happening because of the related hazard sources is evaluated by using the related models when fire happens in LPG tank area and especially analysis is conducted on safety distance.


SHELL Sells LPG Business to Filipino Japanese Consortium

..Anglo-Dutch energy giant Shell's Philippine unit said on Wednesday it would sell its local liquefied petroleum gas business to a Japanese-Filipino consortium for an undisclosed price.

"The sale of Shell's share in the Philippines LPG business is consistent with Shell's strategy to concentrate its global downstream footprint into fewer, larger markets," it said in a statement.

Shell Gas Philippines is to be sold to a consortium called Isla Petroleum and Gas Corp., it said, adding that Shell's other downstream businesses would not be affected by the deal.

Shell spokesmen declined to comment on reports that valued the transaction at $131 million nor identify Isla's Japanese partner, which the reports named as Itochu Petroleum Co.

The date of the sale was also not disclosed.

Shell Gas is a leading player in the importation and distribution of LPG in the Philippines, where it is widely used for cooking.

Isla Petroleum representatives in the Philippines could not be reached for comment.

Based on the above readings... when one must reflect deeply, the following questions comes to mind:
If Shell is doing a good business... then why is it selling its LPG business here?
If there is a clear and present danger of a domino effect, then why is it not openly a discussed issue?
Does SHELL see way far ahead than the rest with regards to the future of LPG?
It is a known fact that SHELL invests in alternative energy like the Hydrogen Hiway in Norway, Hydrogen Fuel Cell technology with its test bed; the Shell Formula Zero events... aside from its Social Responsibility Mission statement to name a few... then how come is it promoting LPG in the first place?... and why the sudden selling while it is at its peak?
Some theories... It probably sees a downfall of the LPG business very soon. And selling it while it's at its peak can make the price handsome... as it is easier to sell to the the trend followers.
This Dutch Company is considered to be about 50 years advance compared with the rest of the world (generally speaking) when it comes to business and technologies. Selling it to a Filipino - Japanese Consortium is a very wise move... but I would not call it very socially responsible. 
Nothing is really what it seems.

Are older vehicles fitted with LPG as environmentally friendly?

Based on the results of the Federal Governments own test programs which indicate that tail pipe C02 emissions produced by older cars (pre 1993) fitted with LPG are still some 14% lower than their petrol powered counterparts.


Unless if these are GTO treated.... 

If you are considering converting your car into LPG... consider the following comparison chart.

Yes we can save the world.  ;-]

LPG for transport

By Nicolaj Stenkjaer, February 2010
Many Danish cars drove during the period 1960 - 1990 on LPG gas (Liquified Petroleum Gas) also known as the GPL, LP gas or auto gas.

LPG is a liquid that is a by product from the refinery processing oil. The reason for virtually no one is running on this fuel in Denmark today is that tax rules were changed in the 1980s. But there are still a few stations back offering LPG gas and in Norway there are approximately 25,000 cars that have LPG as a propellant.
Benefits of LPG cars are that ordinary cars relatively easily are rebuilt to run on LPG gas and there are conversion kits for ordinary gasoline cars.
LPG gas is not stored under high pressure, but only need an operating pressure of 10 bar which is very little compared the operating pressure of natural gas at 200 bar. The low pressure makes it easier to build tanks.
LPG vehicles have CO2 emissions levels like ordinary petrol cars and higher particulate emissions than natural gas, so there are no environmental benefit. Another problem is the explosion hazard, which is quite big.
Denmark has earlier had many buses running on LPG gas, but they are also moving away.

GTO Montero and Civic Vtec

CNG, LPG-run vehicles pose health hazard: BMC

MUMBAI: Vehicles run by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the metropolis are emitting particulates smaller than 2.5 micron in diameter which pose a health hazard, a BMC report has said. However, due to the use of cleaner fuels like unleaded petrol and low sulphur diesel, levels of so2 and lead have come down in Mumbai, the report added.
The environment status report has been prepared by the BMC's air quality monitoring and research laboratory. The smaller particulates, considered a serious health hazard, are generated in large quantities by vehicles which run on gaseous fuels like LPG and CNG, the report said. "The particulates smaller than 2.5 microns are easy to breathe in and dangerous substances can enter the body. If they are left unregulated, they will be major health hazards. This could also lead to lung cancer.''
As per the data available till March 2008, in Mumbai, there are around 44,721 metered and 290 tourist taxis, 540 cars, 290 buses, 95,813 auto-rickshaws and 986 goods carriers that operate on CNG. There are around 256 auto-rickshaws, 1,753 metered and 306 tourist taxis, 4,182 cars, 22 buses and 3,545 goods carriers that operate on LPG.

Death of drivers hound LPG-taxi proponents

Recent deaths of taxi drivers in Iloilo City opened anew discussions and debate on the safety of taxi units converted for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)-use here.

In a two-hour public forum over Bombo Radyo's Zona Libre held Friday, LPG-taxi proponents both from the government and private sector faced off with concerns raised primarily by taxi drivers themselves.

A random interview was made by Bombo Radyo that heard similar sentiments of the drivers on health issues. From complaints of persistent dry cough to dryness of throats, the drivers' concerns were matched by complaints of dizziness and sudden headaches from select commuters reached by the radio station.

Dr. Florentino Alerta II was among the panelists with a lengthy discussion presented on the perils of LPG. Dr. Alerta likewise pushed for the importance of regular medical check-ups of taxi drivers as part of the company policy.

Iloilo City has some 600 to 700 taxi units now LPG-run. GDR taxis, one of the biggest taxi groups plying throughout Iloilo has its units "all 100%" converted. No actual figure was disclosed by the owner Donna Ratilla though saying she would rather leave it at its percentage than give the specific units.

Ratilla maintained the safety of LPG in all of its taxis while stressing that such was in compliance of the government's thrust for cleaner air.

As safety precautions, the proponents added, all LPG-taxis are prohibited to park in enclosed waiting areas. And installers are duly checked too, the group continued with the Land Transportation Office (LTO) ensuring the supposed road-worthiness of the LPG-converted taxi units.

The News Today (TNT) in a report gathered at least six deaths of taxi drivers in a 3 month-period. No direct link was made to the LPG taxi units of the drivers however prevailing sentiments of drivers themselves persist.

Director Porferio Clavel of the Land Transportation and Franchising Regulatory Board (LTFRB) said it is about time that a public dialogue will be made on the subject. This, he said, should have the concerted effort of government agencies involved in the LPG-conversion project. Health issues must also be tackled, Director Clavel agreed if only to successfully push for the program and erase the misconceptions of the drivers and commuting public.

Photojournalist Rufino "Pinoy" Gonzales phoned-in from Texas, USA to share his own LPG-taxi episode. A non-smoker, Gonzales said he suffered from sudden nausea and dizziness in two occasions that he took a taxi later discovered to be LPG-run.

by: Florence F. Hibionada

Air pollution kills nearly 5,000 Metro residents yearly

By TJ Burgonio
First Posted 19:33:00 09/04/2007
Filed Under: Environmental pollution, Health 
MANILA, Philippines -- While the phaseout of leaded gasoline has improved air quality in the country, more than 18 million people still live in cities with unhealthy levels of airborne particulate matter.

Of the urban cities, Metro Manila has the largest ``health burden? from air pollution.

Estimates showed there were nearly 4,968 premature deaths each year in Manila due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases from exposure to poor air quality, according to the Philippine Environment Monitor, a joint report of the World Bank and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) released Tuesday.

These accounted for 12 percent of all deaths in the metropolis, the highest in any urban area in the country, it said.
The latest report examined the role of environment in people's health in the Philippines.

Rahul Raturi, sector manager of the WB's Rural Development, Natural Resources and Environmental Sector, said that one-fifth of reported cases of disease were due to air pollution, water pollution, poor sanitation and hygiene.

``The cost of treatment and lost income from these environmental diseases is roughly estimated at P14 billion per year,? he said in his address at the launch.

Raturi said the poor were more exposed to environmental risks. Low-income groups had lower access to basic sanitation and safe water supply. They were also exposed to water and air pollution.

According to the report, several governmentinterventions over the past 10 years had improved air quality.

For instance, the closure of a number of coal-firedpower plants near Manila in 2001 led to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentrations, while the phaseout of leaded gasoline led to a ten-fold reduction in ambient lead levels since 2001, it said.

But air pollution remained higher in urban centers than in rural areas, the Environment Monitor said.

Concentrations of particulate matter, often used as an indicator of air pollution, were estimated to be three times higher on average in ``urban roadsides? than in rural areas, it said.

Many cities in the country had air pollution levels above national standards, it added.

Particulate matter is the generic term used for a type of air pollution that consists of complex and varying mixtures of particles suspended in the air.

``With regard to the health impacts of air pollution, one very clear message stands out: Particulate matter emitted from motor vehicles is the largest health risk from air pollution,? Raturi said.

``Some 18 million people live in cities that exceed DENR standards. Metro Manila with its large population and high pollution levels, has the largest health burden from air pollution, with motor vehicles and utility vehicles being the greatest culprits,? he added.

Particulate emissions in Manila largely came from motor vehicles (84 percent), solid waste burning (10 percent), and industries (5.5 percent).

Seventy percent of car emissions came from more than 200,000 diesel-powered utility vehicles, like jeepneys, and 170,000 gasoline-powered motorcycles and tricycles.

``Prioritizing measures to further reduce these emissions under the Clean Air Act would result in important health 
improvements,? Raturi said.
In terms of premature deaths due to pollution, Metro Manila was followed by Metro Cebu's 608, Davao City's 414, Zamboanga City's 240, Iloilo City's 204, Cabanatuan's 134, according to the report.

Davao Ecology Under Threat by Illusion of Progress

For the less informed and less sensitive consiousness... we will try to make this as easy to understand as possible.

Recent events related to ecological destruction:

1. The recent Davao Flashfloods
2. The Warmer temperature of the city
3. Attacks of Cobras

These are just a few of the long list of or symptoms of environmental destruction done by big corporations to this once greener city.

What we can partly blame of these events:

1. ABREEZA MALL (Ayala Land and Business Center)
2. Dialysis Center FTC Tower
3. Pinaccle Hotel
4. Camella Northpoint Condominium
5. Magallanes Residence Condominium
6. SPK Compound
7. One Oasis Condominium
8. Linmarr Towers Condominium
9. Palmetto Place Condominium
10. SM Ecoland Expansion
11. JTC Skeptron Hotel (Sheraton Hotel Davao)
12. Eco4000
13. IMAX Theatre
14. Davao Doctors Hospital Expansion
15. D’Leonor Hotel
16. Casa Leticia Boutique Hotel
17. Gaisano Mall of Davao’s expansion
17. University of Mindanao College Expansion
18. University of Southeastern Philippines Gymnasium and Cultural Center
19. Holiday Oceanview Samal
20. Northtown
21. San Pedro College (Ulas Campus)
22. M Piazza Oro

Upcoming Projects and Constructions
1. SM Lanang
2. NCCC Mall Lanang
3. The Lumiere Hotel
4. Reopening of Samal Casino Resort

and many more........

There is nothing wrong with development and progress, for as long as the trees are left where they are... architecture should build towers around these trees and should be an interwoven part of the geography... not totally displace nature out of its rightful place.

Another obvious and alarming impact of nature destruction is....

The cobra attacks on humans and other livestocks.

This 5 foot long Philippine King Cobra was chasing a field lizard at very high speed when it crossed the path of the GTO-treated Hyundai Tiburon on its way to Matina driving through Jack Ridge hill at cruising speed.

The Lizard was running like crazy as if it was almost flying across the road... and after a few seconds... this cobra came at lightning speed behind the lizard. The Lizard was indeed lucky that the GTO Tiburon was passing by just in time to save the day.

This is not a usual incident... You dont see cobras crossing the road and attacking just about anything in their path... not without a reason, like provocation... or habitat destruction.

Ignorance is indeed bliss.... what you dont know... will hurt you eventually someday soon....

Folks of Davao are more laid back compared to Cebuanos and Manilenios.... they hold protest strikes here more quiet and peaceful... they have huge tolerance for corporate criminals here compared to their European counterparts.

This is perhaps why it is now the best spot for investment... specially for Villar and his like.

Camella Housing Developments has saturated Manila, Cavite and the rest of Luzon... it is now trying to do the same destructive patterns in Davao... the land of Promise.... and probably... the land of empty promise.

The Camella subdivisions built towards Calinan is mainly part to be blamed for the Flashflooding of the Matina Pangi areas..

Of course there are also other constructions and development companies riding the same band wagon of Villar... like Ayala, Sta. Lucia, etc.  All promising better lives and livelihood for the Davaoenios... and an Airconditioned Mall for them to spend more!

If you really care about saving Davao.... then, we should oppose this systematic destruction of our environment.

We have started it already with our own cars....

But it is not enough to drive green.. we need to participate in Government decisions... help them make the right decisions... preserve our environment.

Suzuki Multicab Emission Tested

This is the Suzuki Multicab that we tested with a GTE Series 1 prototype... With just a few Green Tech Items... ) 0.145% Carbon Monoxide is readily achievailable.

Different GTO strokes for 2 Strokes; a Guide on how to.

First of all... let us dig deeper into the understanding of 2 stroke engines, how they work, how they are lubricated.

The following is taken from another source page with the link provided for your reference.


Two-Stroke Engines

The two-stroke engine is mechanically very simple. There are no valves, camshafts, etc., just the piston connected by the con-rod to the crankshaft. Lubrication is achieved by mixing oil with the fuel, the resulting mixture then bathing all the moving parts. However, the complete cycle takes only one upstroke and one downstroke of the piston, so some elements of the four phases of operation must occur simultaneously.
The fuel and air are mixed in the carburettor in the usual way, but instead of going directly to the top of the cylinder, the mixture enters the sealed crankcase, i.e. the space underneath the piston. The crankcase is connected to the combustion chamber in the cylinder by an inlet port, sometimes known as a transfer port. Opposite the inlet port there is another port, the exhaust port. Both the inlet and exhaust port are uncovered by the piston in the bottom part of its stroke, thus replicating the function of the valves in the four-stroke engine and allowing gases to enter and leave the cylinder. In the top part of the stroke both ports are covered, sealing the cylinder. This allows compression to occur at the top of the upstroke and allows the power of the expanding gases to be harnessed at the top of the downstroke.
Bottom of Downstroke

Bottom of Downstroke - Induction/Exhaust

The piston has moved down, uncovering both the inlet (transfer) and exhaust ports. The descending piston has increased the pressure in the crankcase, so the fuel-air mixture is being pumped from the crankcase via the transfer port into the combustion chamber. In some engines (not in a Vire 7) there is a valve between the carburettor and the crankcase which stops any tendency for some of the fuel-air mixture to blow back through the carburettor.

Top of Upstroke - Compression

Top of Upstroke - Compression

The piston has passed Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) and is now rising. The inlet and exhaust ports are both covered, so the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber is being pressurised and is heating up. At the same time, a vacuum is developing in the crankcase, so a fresh charge of fuel-air is being drawn into the crankcase from the carburettor. As the piston rounds TDC, a high voltage discharge from the spark plug ignites the mixture in the combustion chamber.

Top of Downstroke - Ignition/Power

Top of Downstroke - Ignition/Power

With both ports still closed, the pressure of the expanding gases forces the piston down again. The pressure in the crankcase is already rising. Later in the downstroke the exhaust port will be uncovered, allowing the spent gases to escape. Very shortly after that the inlet/transfer port will also be uncovered, which takes the engine back to where it was at the start of the cycle.


How to treat a 2 stroke bike with GTO:

Step 1:

Every 2 stroke bike nowadays have what you call a 2T Auto lube tank. Check if this component is present in the system and check if it is working.

When this is present, working and is without a problem like leaks or faulty pump, fill the tank with your normal 2T fluid... once this tank is full, just add 15ml. of GTO (Green Technology Oil) into it. Stirring can help it to mix quickly with the rest of the fluid.

Step 2:

Then add another 15 ml. in the engine crank case. As you know, the oil in the engine crank case of a 2 stroke engine is not pumped all throughout inside the engine... it is only splashed as the crankshaft dips into the oil bath at every downstroke. However, this oil is not able to go on the top end section of the engine like the cylinder walls, this is why a 2 stroke engine needs the auto lube system to feed the cylinders and pistons at the same time the fuel and air is also fed into it when the engine starts to run.

Step 3:

It is a common bad habit and practice of most Philippine tricycle drivers to add 2T oil into the gas tank. They figured it would be safer to do it this way so the engine will not wear out easily. But to their little knowledge, the combustion efficiency of the engine as well as the emissions are compromised. Since fuel becomes dilluted with 2T oil, the fuel and air mixture becomes less volatile, causing the engine to emit so much smoke!... White smoke that is. This is the color of unburned oil.

In laymans term: A smoke belching 2 stroke means, low power but longer engine life due to excess oil in the cylinders.

The very same reason why this engine was banned in the first place... during the advent of Global Warming consciousness.

It is therefore imperative to remove the old fuel out of the system or out of the tank by draining it.

We will not be using this fuel anymore... but in order not to waste it, you may put it in the tank of your car.... since it will be diluted more, the 2T oil in it will be thinned out more....

Now put new 100% fuel (Gasoline/ Extra or Unleaded) into your motorbikes tank.

Now you're ready to run an ultra low emission 2 stroke bike!.

Consider changing your tail pipe into a more quiet one for your next stages.

God Bless and Enjoy the ride!

Hopefully, we can reverse the international move to ban all 2 stroke engines.

Empower yourselves... Adopt the Green Technology Program.

GTO treated Honda TMX Failed!... well... Almost!

The first ever Motorbike treated with GTO that broke down after the first 5 minutes.... well, almost.

It was interesting to investigate what happened since it was the first time such a thing occurred after thousands of motorbikes have benefited from GTO already for the past 2 years. So we went to the owner to find out.

After hundreds of kick starting it, inspite of very good compression, ignition and fuel supply... the bike would not start. They said, it was running well then all of a sudden some noise came out of the engine and the engine stalled soonafter.

After telling the mechanic who specialize on these bikes that there is big backfire occurring all the time, he told us to check the chuck in the flywheel, he said it has probably loosened out of its place moving the entire timing out of synch.  Whew! are we glad now that there is nothing wrong with our oil. 

The owner smiled again and withdrew his judgement on our oil. Thanks be to God!

The Honda TMX is designed for a motorcycle taxi. Here in the Philippines, Honda TMX is commonly used for the tricycle, habal-habal and other personal use.

TMX is known for its power and durability. The only disadvantage of it is that it hits you back if you don't know how to kick start it.

Currently, the price of it is PhP68,000.00

Engine Type 4 Stroke, OHV, air-cooled
Bore X Stroke (mm) 56.5 x 49.5
Displacement (cc) 124.1
Compression Ratio 9.0:1
Max Output/rpm 7.9 kw (10.7 PS)/8500
Max Torque/rpm 9.46 N-m (0.96 kg-m)/7500
Engine Oil Capacity (liters) 1
Starter Kick starter
Transmission 4 speed down-up
Dimensions (L x W x H) (mm) 1915 x 735 x 1032
Dry Weight (kgs) 106
Fuel Tank Capacity (liters) 9.0 (reserve 2.0)
Seat Height (mm) 743
Wheel Base (mm) 1201 mm
Min Ground Clearance (mm) 150 mm
Front Suspension Telescopic fork
Rear Suspension Twin

The GTV Biker Series!

Good News Motorbikers!

 Prepare for STAGE 2

The GTVorxins for Motorbikes is here now!

Production is currently on-going and will be available soon via the OTG-Karis Network distribution.

Now that your bikes are GTOed, enjoy the worlds easiest mods you can add to your iron horses.


  • Improves Fuel Efficiency
  • Improve Combustion Efficiency
  • Improves Power and Torque
  • Further Improves Emissions to even lower figures!
  • Increase engine Vacuum
  • Improves acceleration
  • and... Save fuel as a bonus
The GTV Biker Series is available for the common 90 to 125cc Honda XRM's or Skygo motorbikes. 

Will fit any 33mm throttle opening.

Going Green has never been more exciting as ever. 

Low Emission Pajero

This Old Pajero was newly overhauled but still it was smoke belching and with less power until it was treated last week with GTO (The Green Technology Oil). About 6 GTO bottles and 4 GTF's were put inside the engine. We also added dual GTVorxins designed for Turbocharged systems. Immediately after the Green Tech treatment, this SUV instantly improved in both emissions and performance.

The same day, it was brought for emissions test.

It got 0.25k on the opacimeter test since this is a Diesel.

The Standard was 2.5k

Then the owner questioned the test technician about the result... "If this is normal"....

The technician said - NO.

He said... even brand new diesels don't show low results like this!... even if they are newly calibrated or changed oil.

They cannot believe it....   You better believe it.

This is just one among the many SUV's transformed by "the world fastest tune-up."

GTO Treated Suzuki emits Ultra Low Carbon Monoxide

This Motorbike is roughly 3 years old already... skipped an oil change for a real oil change = GTO; the Green Technology Oil.

This is just one among the thousands of motorbikes transformed from Planet Killers... to Earth Savers.


Green Technology Items is now available thrru the OTG-Karis MLM network.

For more information, please visit

Or contact the nearest OTG Guy in your neighborhood... if there is none yet, now would be a good opportunity to be the first OTG Guy in your area.

Help Save this planet.... while you empower yourselves.

Carbon Footprint Calculator

Notes to ponder

NASA claims that the government could slow down worldwide global warming by cutting down on soot emissions. Studies by NASA show that cutting down on soot would not only have an immediate cooling effect, but would also put a stop to many of the deaths caused by air pollution. When soot is formed, it typically travels through the air absorbing and releasing solar radiation which in turn begins to warm the atmosphere. Cutting soot emissions would be an immediate help against global warming, as the soot would quickly fall out of the atmosphere and begin to cool it down.

Cutting back on soot emissions would buy us time in our fight against global warming. Soot is caused by the partial burning of fossil fuels, wood and vegetation. Soot is known to contain over forty different cancer causing chemicals, and a complete cut would offer untold health benefits worldwide.

Environmental conservation has always been a topic for lengthy discussions, but up until recent times, global warming and climate changes were vague subjects, with no hard proof. Not surprisingly, the previous lack of attention to these issues have created a very gloomy outlook on our future. So, considering all this, what could be the biggest contributor to climate changes through global warming? Transportation - the man-made iron horses, flying machines and sea monsters, so to speak.

The question we have now is how green is our transportation? The majority of the worlds' vehicles are fueled by oil (petrol, diesel and kerosene). Even if they rely on electricity, the stations used to generate this electricity use fossil fuels for power! Excluding vehicle manufacture, transportation is responsible for 14% of the artificially created greenhouse emissions, mostly carbondioxide.

Automobiles, trains and planes are all responsible for this problem, but cars are the highest impact-makers. They release approximately six times more carbondioxide than a plane and seven times more than sea vessels.

What is Air Pollution?

Air pollution is somewhat difficult to define because many air pollutants, at low concentrations, are essential nutrients for the sustainable development of ecosystems. So, air pollution could be defined as:A state of the atmosphere, which leads to the exposure of human beings and/or ecosystems to such high levels or loads of specific compounds or mixtures thereof, that damage is caused. With very few exceptions, all compounds that are considered air pollutants have both natural as well as human-made origins.

Air pollution is not a new phenomenon; in Medieval times, the burning of coal was forbidden in London while Parliament was in session. Air pollution problems have dramatically increased in intensity as well as scale due to the increase in emissions since the Industrial Revolution.